Self Activating ISCO-Enhanced Bioremediation Reagent
Provect-OX is an in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) / accelerated bioremediation reagent that uses ferric iron (Fe III) as a safe and effective means of activating persulfate. Provect-OX oxidizes a wide variety of organic compounds present in impacted soil, sediment and groundwater, including chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, and pesticides. Rodriquez et al., (2014) recently reported that 2 mM Fe(III) and 6 mM persulfate was very effective in rapidly mineralizing even recalcitrant organic compounds such as the synthetic azo dye Orange G (C16H10N2Na2O7S2).
This advanced activation catalyst is further unique considering its ability to enhance bioremediation processes. This is accomplished via the subsequent utilization of sulfate and iron as terminal electron acceptors for facultative reductive processes. Degradation intermediates generated during pollutant oxidation may act as electron shuttles, allowing the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) in the redox cycling of iron and continued activation of persulfate. This combined remedy provides supplemental treatment mechanisms thereby allowing for more cost-efficient dosing of the product.
This technique maximizes the synergy between persulfate and iron for coupled oxidation and enhanced bioremediation: i) sulfate is generated from persulfate, i) Ferric iron (Fe III) is microbiologically reduced to ferrous iron (Fe II) readily supplying electrons to exchange and react with sulfide. Together, sulfide and iron form pyrite, an iron bearing soil mineral with a favorable reductive capacity.
- Effective: Promotes free radical based in situ oxidation of a wide-range of organic contaminants. Also provides a unique microbiological component for multiple accelerated attenuation processes.
- Efficient: Significantly lower costs as a result of sub-stoichiometric dosing requirements.
- Safe: Fewer health and safety concerns as compared with use of traditional activation methods such as heat, chelated metals, hydrogen peroxide or pH extremes. Contains built-in activation which eliminates the need for additional and potentially hazardous chemicals required to achieve traditional persulfate activation. No heat generated; fewer material compatibility issues.
- Ease of Use: Single component product with integrated activator results in simplified logistics and application. No additional containers or multi-step mixing ratios required prior to application. Fewer material compatibility issues.
- Improved Performance: Combined remedy prevents rebound which is often seen in other oxidation processes. Maximizes the inherent geochemistry of a post-oxidation environment for biologically based attenuation.
Provect-OX was developed by experienced practitioners who understand field applications. For example, persulfate oxidant and its activator can bee conveniently packaged in a single, pre-mixed bag for ease of use and safe handling. Moreover, due to its safe and non-extreme activation chemistry, Provect-OX will not generate excessive heat / off-gases, nor will it mobilize heavy metals or lead to the generation of secondary impact issues, such as elevated arsenic, chromium, or pH.
US PATENT ISSUED: The US Patent and Trademark Office has issued US Patent Number 9,126,245 describing the combined use of ferric oxide and persulfate to yield safer, more effective remedial actions via non-extreme persulfate activation coupled with sustained secondary biotreatment. International filings have been submitted for the EU, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Japan and Mexico. We freely market this advanced persulfate-based ISCO technology globally using our preferred chemical suppliers.
MADE IN THE USA: Provect-OX® is now manufactured and warehoused in Toledo, Ohio. It is provided as a pre-blended (self-activating) material containing proper ratio of sodium persulfate and ferric oxide for safe, easy use. It is available in various packaging sizes: 50 lb bags, 500 lb super-sacs, 1,000 lb super-sacs or 2,000 lb totes
50 lb Bags
1,000 lb Super Sacs
Provectus announces that the US Patent and Trademark Office recently issued US Patent No. 9,126,245 B2 describing the combined use of ferric oxide (or other tri-valent metals) plus persulfate to yield safer, more effective remedial actions. With patent filings in the USA, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Japan, Mexico and the EU, Provectus freely markets globally this technology as Provect-OX Persulfate for superior in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) coupled with sustained and enhanced bioremediation.
We are excited to announce that the US Patent and Trademark Office has issued Notice of Allowance on the combined use ferric oxide and persulfate to yield safer, more effective remedial actions via non-extreme persulfate activation coupled with sustained secondary biotreatment. We freely market globally this advanced ISCO technology as Provect-OX. This soon-to-be-patented product is now available for use in a variety of remediation processes, as it is not restricted by any extraneous licenses or patents.
Sold as Provect-OX, the combined chemistries supports multiple processes in situ to rapidly oxidize a wide variety of organic constituents of interest (COI) present in impacted soil, sediment and groundwater (including chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, and pesticides) while uniquely supporting long-term, sustained, secondary bioremediation processes to manage residuals and prevent contaminant rebound (COI rebound is a common problem encountered with conventional ISCO technologies). This is accomplished by using ferric iron (Fe III) as a safe and effective means of activating persulfate which quickly yields sulfate and ferrate radicals for ISCO treatment. The process also enhances subsequent utilization of sulfate and iron as terminal electron acceptors for facultative redox reactions for improved biodegradation of any residual COIs. This combined remedy combines treatment mechanisms thereby allowing for more cost-efficient dosing of the product.
The use of ferric iron to activate persulfate was thoroughly described in 1958 (J.F. Henderson, McGill University, Montreal, Canada – click here for copy. However, the advanced activation catalyst is unique when considering its ability to enhance bioremediation processes over an extending period of time. Alternative methods of stimulating secondary biodegradation processes using oxygen release compounds (such as calcium or magnesium oxyhydroxide) are limited in that they will remain active for only a few months, after which time their oxygen release potential is exhausted. Iron, on the other hand, will remain active for many years. Moreover, oxygen release compounds inherently increase the local pH to extremely basic conditions (>10 pH units) which is simply not conducive to biological activity. Importantly, Provect-OX will not generate excessive heat / off-gases that can raise health & safety issues and cause problems during remedial construction (e.g., increased surfacing) and induce the migration of COI residuals and vapors.
Provect-OX is a dry powder material that can be easily injected into a subsurface environment in a variety of ways, based on site-specific designs. Application methods include direct mixing, hydraulic fracturing, pneumatic fracturing, and direct push injection of slurries or liquids. Direct placement in trenches and excavations are also reliable application methods.
For more information on how Provect-OX® compares to other ISCO technologies, Click Here.
- “Combining Persulfate, In Situ Ferrate Generation and Enhanced Bioremediation for Safer, More Effective Remedial Actions” J. Mueller (Provectus Environmental Products, Inc), K. Finneran (Clemson University), R. Darlington (Battelle), and
M. Scalzi (IET), Fourth International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies May 22-27, 2017 Miami, Florida
- “Combined ISCO/Bioremediation for In-Place Soil Treatment” Jeff Ogden (Fehr-Graham, Inc.) and J. Mueller (Provectus Environmental Products, Inc), Fourth International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies May 22-27, 2017 Miami, Florida
- “Safer, More Effective ISCO Remedial Actions using Non-Extreme Persulfate Activation to Yield Sustained Secondary Treatment” Jim Mueller (Provectus Environmental Products, Inc.), M. Scalzi (Innovative Environmental Technology, Inc.), and J. Molina (Provectus Colombia / EcoSoluciones, Ltda), PTAC 2015 Soil and Groundwater Forum – March 15, 2015 – Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Provect-OX Case Study – Landfill Leachate w/TCE and 14 DCB
- Provect-OX Case Study – COI Peat and Sandy Aquifer
- Provect-OX Technical Note No.5: Leachate and Wastewater Treatment
- Provect-OX TPH Tech Note Sampling Analysis Guidelines
- Provect-OX Handling and Application Guidelines
- Novel Mode of Microbial Energy Metabolism: Organic Carbon Oxidation Coupled to Dissimilatory Reduction of Iron or Manganese
- Bioremediation of Benzene, Ethylbenzene, And Xylenes In Groundwater Under Iron-Amended, Sulfate-Reducing Conditions
- Influence of Ferric Iron on Complete Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene (TCE) to Ethene: Fe(III) Reduction Does Not Always Inhibit Complete Dechlorination
- Degradation of Trimethylbenzene Isomers by an Enrichment Culture under N2O-Reducing Conditions
- Innovative Treatment of BTEX and Trimethylbenzene using Zero Valent Iron Catalyzed Hydroxyl & Sulfate Free Radical In-Situ Chemical Oxidation
Posters & Presentations
- “Safer, More Effective ISCO Remedial Actions Using Non-Extreme Persulfate Activation to Yield Sustained Secondary Treatment” Wade Meese – IET
- “Combined ISCO/Bioremediation for In-Place Soil Treatment” J. Mueller – Provectus Environmental, and J. Ogden – Fehr Graham – Battelle 2017, Miami FL
- “Combining Persulfate, In Situ Ferrate Generation and Enhanced Bioremediation for Safer, More Effective Remedial Actions” J. Mueller, K. Finneran, R. Darlington, and M. Scalzi – Battelle 2017, Miami FL
Contaminants of Interest
- Provect-OX Case Study - Landfill Leachate w/TCE and 14 DCB
- Provect-OX Case Study - COI Peat and Sandy Aquifer
- Provect-OX Presentation: "Safer, More Effective ISCO Remedial Actions Using Non-Extreme Persulfate Activation to Yield Sustained Secondary Treatment [Wade Meese - IET]
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Technical Data Sheets
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